gemstone information,gem facts,learn about gemstones,color grade,clarity,aniversary gemstones,birthstone,gem cuts,order,secure,inventory,sale,free,price,shape,cut,information,edelstein,lot,rough,synthetic,natural,man made,lab,simulant Gem Information COLOR GRADES Our Color Scale: The color sacle below is based on our determination of the purity of the primary color in a particular gemstone and the desirability of the color. For example, the redder the Ruby, the bluer the Blue Sapphire, or the greener the Emerald, then the lower the number will be on this scale... ie: Ruby should have Red as the primary color, so if it has around 80% Red as the primary color (like pigeon blood or cherry red) it would be graded #1, whereas if it has around 70% Red as the primary color and around 30% orange or blue as the secondary color, it would be graded as #2 Very Good. 1 Exceptional This is the very best and most desirable color for the particular gemstone. In most cases you should see a rich vivid primary color (somewhere around 80%) and very little secondary color. (AAA color) 2 Very Good This color grade is also very good and very desirable for the particular gemstone. In most cases you should see very good primary color (somewhere between 60% to 70%) and just a little bit more of the secondary color. (AAA to AA+ color) 3 Good This color grade is good to very good for the particular gemstone. In most cases you should see good primary color (somewhere between 50% to 60%) and even more of the secondary color. (AA to A+ color) 4 Fair This color grade is fair to good for the particular gemstone. In most cases the primary color will be hard to determine (somewhere between 40% to 50%). (A to B+ color) 5 Poor We concider this color grade poor for the particular gemstone. In most cases the primary color will be very hard to determine. (B to C color) CLARITY SCALE Our Clarity Scale: Is provided to assist you in selecting the gem most suitable to your requirements and budget. We grade most of our gems using the numerical "1" through "5" scale, where "1" is a Very Clean gem normally Free of Inclusion, and "5" is Excessively Included and would be a stone to be avoided. Grading is based on our determination of the degree to which a particular gemstone is free of inclusions 1 Very Clean FL-VVS a Flawless to Very Very Clean Gem (Exceptional AAA+ Quality or Top Top Gem Quality). In the "Type I" class this means a gemologist under favorable lighting conditions cannot see any inclusions at ten power magnification, and/or, have no internal characteristics observable under magnification, but which have minor surface blemishes that do not penetrate the stone, and/or, have very small inclusions which are difficult for a gemologist to see at 10x magnification. In the "Type II" and "Type III" class this means a gemologist under favorable lighting conditions can see small inclusions (small feathers, light silk, light gardin, etc.) which are usually obvious when viewed with 10x magnification, but you will probably not readily see these inclusions to the unaided eye, except on larger stones and in certain color gems with characteristics that typically have visible inclusions like Emerald, Ruby, Padparadscha Sapphire, Yellow/Golden Sapphire, Blue Sapphire, Rubellite Tourmaline, and a few others. 2 Eyeclean VS a Very Clean Gem (Exceptional AAA Quality or Top Gem Quality). In the "Type I" class this describes stones with very small inclusions which can be difficult to observe with 10x magnification. These small inclusions are barely visible to the unaided eye, except on Emerald cut and larger diamonds. In the "Type II" class for Color Gems means a gemologist under favorable lighting conditions can see small inclusions (small feathers, light silk, etc.) which are usually obvious when viewed with 10x magnification, but you will probably not readily see these inclusions to the unaided eye, except on larger stones and in certain color gems with characteristics that typically have visible inclusions like Ruby, Padparadscha Sapphire, Yellow/Golden Sapphire, Blue Sapphire, Rubellite Tourmaline, and a few others. In the "Type III" class this means a gemologist can see small sized inclusions (small fissures, light gardin, etc.) that is usually visible with the unaided eye without magnification. Larger Emeralds can have medium sized inclusions and still be graded VS Type III. 3 Eyecleanish SI a Very Good Quality Gem (still considered AAA Quality or Top Gem Quality). In the "Type I" class this describes Diamonds with small inclusions that are usually obvious when viewed with 10x magnification. Inclusions are difficult to see with the unaided eye, except on larger stones or occasionally with Emerald Cut diamonds. In the "Type II" class for Color Gems means a gemologist under favorable lighting conditions can see medium to moderate inclusions that are usually visible to the unaided eye without magnification. Inclusions are generally located to the side or in the pavilion area where they may not be obvious when mounted in jewelry until you take a closer look. In the "Type III" class this means a gemologist can see moderate and/or numerous small inclusions (fissures, gardin, carbon, etc.) that can be centrally located and visible to the unaided or naked eye without magnification. 4 Included I1 or I2 a Good Quality Gem (AA to A Quality Grade) In the "Type I" class this describes Diamonds with medium to large inclusions (Piques) which are usually obvious to a gemologist with the unaided eye. An I1 may have an inclusion located to the side while an I2 will have it centerally located or numerous inclusions.small inclusions that are usually obvious when viewed with 10x magnification. In the "Type II" and "Type III" class describes Color Gems that have inclusions centrally located or numerous inclusions that are visible to the unaided or naked eye without magnification. Most Good Commercial quality Emerald and Ruby will be in the I2 to I3 category. 5 Excessively Included I3 a Commercial Quality Gemstone (B, C, or D or lower Quality Grade) These gems have very obvious inclusions that are very visible to the unaided or naked eye without any magnification. This grade of excessively Included gem normally has durability problems and should be avoided. It is doubtful you'll ever see this poor a grade on our website, but If you really insist on purchasing this poor quality a gem, all you have to do is shop at a chain type jewelry store, a department store, or buy from one of the Gem/Jewelry TV Home Shopping programs. BIRTHSTONES January Rhotolite, Garnet, Rose Quartz February Amethyst, Onyx, Moonstone March Aquamarine, Bloodstone, Rock Crystal April Diamond, White Sapphire, White Quartz May Emerald, Green Tourmaline, Tsavorite , Garnet June Alexandrite, Pearl, Opal, Moonstone, Cat's Eye July Ruby, Rubellite, Tourmaline August Peridot, Jade, Sardonyx, Star Sapphire September Blue Sapphire, Tanzanite, Lapis, Iolite October Pink Sapphire, Kunzite, Pink Tourmaline, Morganite November Yellow Sapphire, Yellow Citrine, Diamond, Tiger's Eye December Blue Sapphire, Spinel, Topaz, Blue Zircon, Diamond, Turquoise ANNIVERSARY GEMSTONES 1st Gold Jewelry 2nd Garnet 3rd Pearls 4th Blue Topaz 5th Blue Sapphire 6th Amethyst 7th Onyx 8th Green Tourmaline 9th Lapis Lazuli 10th Diamond Jewelry 11th Turquoise 12th Jade 13th Yellow Citrine 14th Opal 15th Ruby 16th Peridot 17th Watches 18th Cat's Eye Chrysoberyl 19th Aquamarine 20th Emerald 21st Iolite 22nd Spinel 23rd Imperial Topaz 24th Tanzanite 25th Silver Jubilee 30th Pearl Jubilee 35th Emerald 40th Ruby 45th Sapphire 50th Golden Jubilee 55th Alexandrite 60th Diamond Jubilee 70th Sapphire Jubilee 80th Ruby Jubilee GEM CUTS Types of Cuts for Gemstones There is no general rule which can be applied to the various cuts. However, three groups or types of cut can be named: Faceted cut, plain cut, and mixed cut. The faceted cut is practically applied only to transparent stones. The number of small even facets gives the gem higher luster and often a better play of color. Most facet cuts are built on two basic types, the brilliant cut and the trap or emerald cut. The plain cut can be leveled en cabochon (domed). This is suitable for agates and other opaque stones. In mixed cuts, the upper part is level and the lower part is faceted, or vice versa. Brilliant-Full cut or Round-Brilliant cut This cut has been specially developed for the diamond. The word "brilliant" alone refers to a diamond, whereas, in the case of other gems, the mineral name should be given.. ie.. Round brilliant-cut sapphire. This cut has at least 32 facets, plus the table on the upper part, and 24 facets on the lower part. When there are less, it is called a "Round" cut". Eight cut This cut is also usually for the diamond, normally diamonds that are too small for a full cut. This cut has 8 facets on the upper and lower parts as well as the table on the upper. Rose Cut and Half Dutch Rose Are facet cuts without a table or pavilion that vary in the number and positioning of facets. These are old cuts not normally used today since they do not produce much brilliance. Step Cut A simple type of facet cut, specially used for colored stones, but also occasionally for diamonds. Several facets are cut parallel to the edges, the facets becoming steeper towards the girdle. The lower part usually has more facets than the upper part. A step cut can be used in combination with other cuts ie Oval-Step cut or Square-Step cut, etc. Scissor Cut A type of step cut. The facets are divided into four sub-facets by the "scissors", some have truncated corners while others are cut with square corners. Ceylon cut, Old Mine cut, Antique cut, or Cushion Cut This cut is mostly referred to as the "Cushion cut" and it can vary in shape from ovalish/squarish to ovalish/rectangularish. It is a primarily cut used on ruby and sapphire that is cut in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). This very popular cut has numerous facets in both upper and lower parts and is normally a very brilliant cut. This cut allows the cutter to obtain maximum weight so it is not always symmetrical. Emerald Cut A step cut with an octagon shape, especially used for emerald, but also popular for longer-shaped diamonds and other colored stones. Most have truncated corners while others can have square corners. Antique cuts These are examples of the Ceylon Cushion cut shapes, the first being ovalish/squarish, and the second being more ovalish/rectangularish. As stated above, It is a primarily cut used on ruby and sapphire that is cut in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). This very popular cut has numerous facets in both upper and lower parts and is normally a very brilliant cut. This cut allows the cutter to obtain maximum weight so it is not always symmetrical., Oval cut This very popular cut has numerous facets in both upper and lower parts and is normally a very brilliant cut. It's face shape is always oval. Some are cut elongated oval but this cut is always symmetrical. Bead cut This is a Spherical cut that is totally faceted... Other Cuts Various other types of cuts show an abundance of forms available. Not all gems are cut to these forms as a general rule so these cuts are only provided as a guide to understanding them. Square cut, Baguette cut (long rectangle), Octagon cut, French cut (base and table square, triangular facets)... Pear cut, Navette or Marquise cut (pointed elliptical), Pendeloque or Drop cut (pear-shaped), Briolette cut (pear-shaped with crossed faceted bands)... Table Cut The simplest type of step cut which is very flat with a large table. It is often used for seals or rings for men ie. onyx with a class logo, etc. Cabochon cuts The main representative of the plain cut. The upper part is domed and the lower part level, or slightly domed. The name Cabochon means "French-nail" because of its rounded shape Mixed cuts The upper part can be cabochon domed and the lower part faceted, or the reverse... Barrel cut or Olive cut (small barrel-shaped), Trapezoid cut, Heart-shaped cut, Escutcheon-shaped cut, and many many other Fantasy cuts not pictured like Freeform, Trillion, Triangle, Princess, Radiant, Star, Modified Scissors, Spherical, Hexagon, Coats of Arms, and many others. About Alexandrite About Amethyst About Aquamarine About Beryl About Chrysoberyl About Citrine About Emerald About Iolite About Opal History About Peridot About Pearls About Ruby About Sapphire About Garnet About Tanzanite About Topaz About Tourmaline About Zircon About Opal

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COLOR GRADES

Our Color Scale:

 

The color sacle below is based on our determination of the purity of the primary color in a particular gemstone and the desirability of the color. For example, the redder the Ruby, the bluer the Blue Sapphire, or the greener the Emerald, then the lower the number will be on this scale... ie: Ruby should have Red as the primary color, so if it has around 80% Red as the primary color (like pigeon blood or cherry red) it would be graded #1, whereas if it has around 70% Red as the primary color and around 30% orange or blue as the secondary color, it would be graded as #2 Very Good.

 

1 Exceptional

 

This is the very best and most desirable color for the particular gemstone. In most cases you should see a rich vivid primary color (somewhere around 80%) and very little secondary color. (AAA color)

 

2 Very Good

 

This color grade is also very good and very desirable for the particular gemstone. In most cases you should see very good primary color (somewhere between 60% to 70%) and just a little bit more of the secondary color. (AAA to AA+ color)

 

3 Good

 

This color grade is good to very good for the particular gemstone. In most cases you should see good primary color (somewhere between 50% to 60%) and even more of the secondary color. (AA to A+ color)

 

4 Fair

 

This color grade is fair to good for the particular gemstone. In most cases the primary color will be hard to determine (somewhere between 40% to 50%). (A to B+ color)

 

5 Poor

 

We concider this color grade poor for the particular gemstone. In most cases the primary color will be very hard to determine. (B to C color)

 

CLARITY SCALE

 

Our Clarity Scale:

 

Is provided to assist you in selecting the gem most suitable to your requirements and budget. We grade most of our gems using the numerical "1" through "5" scale, where "1" is a Very Clean gem normally Free of Inclusion, and "5" is Excessively Included and would be a stone to be avoided. Grading is based on our determination of the degree to which a particular gemstone is free of inclusions

 

1 Very Clean

 

FL-VVS a Flawless to Very Very Clean Gem (Exceptional AAA+ Quality or Top Top Gem Quality).

 

In the "Type I" class this means a gemologist under favorable lighting conditions cannot see any inclusions at ten power magnification, and/or, have no internal characteristics observable under magnification, but which have minor surface blemishes that do not penetrate the stone, and/or, have very small inclusions which are difficult for a gemologist to see at 10x magnification.

 

In the "Type II" and "Type III" class this means a gemologist under favorable lighting conditions can see small inclusions (small feathers, light silk, light gardin, etc.) which are usually obvious when viewed with 10x magnification, but you will probably not readily see these inclusions to the unaided eye, except on larger stones and in certain color gems with characteristics that typically have visible inclusions like Emerald, Ruby, Padparadscha Sapphire, Yellow/Golden Sapphire, Blue Sapphire, Rubellite Tourmaline, and a few others.

 

2 Eyeclean

 

VS a Very Clean Gem (Exceptional AAA Quality or Top Gem Quality).

 

In the "Type I" class this describes stones with very small inclusions which can be difficult to observe with 10x magnification. These small inclusions are barely visible to the unaided eye, except on Emerald cut and larger diamonds.

 

In the "Type II" class for Color Gems means a gemologist under favorable lighting conditions can see small inclusions (small feathers, light silk, etc.) which are usually obvious when viewed with 10x magnification, but you will probably not readily see these inclusions to the unaided eye, except on larger stones and in certain color gems with characteristics that typically have visible inclusions like Ruby, Padparadscha Sapphire, Yellow/Golden Sapphire, Blue Sapphire, Rubellite Tourmaline, and a few others.

 

In the "Type III" class this means a gemologist can see small sized inclusions (small fissures, light gardin, etc.) that is usually visible with the unaided eye without magnification. Larger Emeralds can have medium sized inclusions and still be graded VS Type III.

 

3 Eyecleanish

 

SI a Very Good Quality Gem (still considered AAA Quality or Top Gem Quality).

 

In the "Type I" class this describes Diamonds with small inclusions that are usually obvious when viewed with 10x magnification. Inclusions are difficult to see with the unaided eye, except on larger stones or occasionally with Emerald Cut diamonds.

 

In the "Type II" class for Color Gems means a gemologist under favorable lighting conditions can see medium to moderate inclusions that are usually visible to the unaided eye without magnification. Inclusions are generally located to the side or in the pavilion area where they may not be obvious when mounted in jewelry until you take a closer look.

 

In the "Type III" class this means a gemologist can see moderate and/or numerous small inclusions (fissures, gardin, carbon, etc.) that can be centrally located and visible to the unaided or naked eye without magnification.

 

4 Included

 

I1 or I2 a Good Quality Gem (AA to A Quality Grade)

 

In the "Type I" class this describes Diamonds with medium to large inclusions (Piques) which are usually obvious to a gemologist with the unaided eye. An I1 may have an inclusion located to the side while an I2 will have it centerally located or numerous inclusions.small inclusions that are usually obvious when viewed with 10x magnification.

 

In the "Type II" and "Type III" class describes Color Gems that have inclusions centrally located or numerous inclusions that are visible to the unaided or naked eye without magnification. Most Good Commercial quality Emerald and Ruby will be in the I2 to I3 category.

 

 

5 Excessively Included

 

I3 a Commercial Quality Gemstone (B, C, or D or lower Quality Grade)

 

These gems have very obvious inclusions that are very visible to the unaided or naked eye without any magnification. This grade of excessively Included gem normally has durability problems and should be avoided. It is doubtful you'll ever see this poor a grade on our website, but If you really insist on purchasing this poor quality a gem, all you have to do is shop at a chain type jewelry store, a department store, or buy from one of the Gem/Jewelry TV Home Shopping programs.

 

BIRTHSTONES

 

January Rhotolite, Garnet, Rose Quartz

 

February Amethyst, Onyx, Moonstone

 

March Aquamarine, Bloodstone, Rock Crystal

 

April Diamond, White Sapphire, White Quartz

 

May Emerald, Green Tourmaline, Tsavorite , Garnet

 

June Alexandrite, Pearl, Opal, Moonstone, Cat's Eye

 

July Ruby, Rubellite, Tourmaline

 

August Peridot, Jade, Sardonyx, Star Sapphire

 

September Blue Sapphire, Tanzanite, Lapis, Iolite

 

October Pink Sapphire, Kunzite, Pink Tourmaline, Morganite

 

November Yellow Sapphire, Yellow Citrine, Diamond, Tiger's Eye

 

December Blue Sapphire, Spinel, Topaz, Blue Zircon, Diamond, Turquoise

 

ANNIVERSARY GEMSTONES

 

1st Gold Jewelry

 

2nd Garnet

 

3rd Pearls

 

4th Blue Topaz

 

5th Blue Sapphire

 

6th Amethyst

 

7th Onyx

 

8th Green Tourmaline

 

9th Lapis Lazuli

 

10th Diamond Jewelry

 

11th Turquoise

 

12th Jade

 

13th Yellow Citrine

 

14th Opal

 

15th Ruby

 

16th Peridot

 

17th Watches

 

18th Cat's Eye Chrysoberyl

 

19th Aquamarine

 

20th Emerald

 

21st Iolite

 

22nd Spinel

 

23rd Imperial Topaz

 

24th Tanzanite

 

25th Silver Jubilee

 

30th Pearl Jubilee

 

35th Emerald

 

40th Ruby

 

45th Sapphire

 

50th Golden Jubilee

 

55th Alexandrite

 

60th Diamond Jubilee

 

70th Sapphire Jubilee

 

80th Ruby Jubilee

 

GEM CUTS

 

Types of Cuts for Gemstones

 

There is no general rule which can be applied to the various cuts. However, three groups or types of cut can be named: Faceted cut, plain cut, and mixed cut.

 

The faceted cut is practically applied only to transparent stones. The number of small even facets gives the gem higher luster and often a better play of color. Most facet cuts are built on two basic types, the brilliant cut and the trap or emerald cut. The plain cut can be leveled en cabochon (domed). This is suitable for agates and other opaque stones. In mixed cuts, the upper part is level and the lower part is faceted, or vice versa.

 

Brilliant-Full cut or Round-Brilliant cut This cut has been specially developed for the diamond. The word "brilliant" alone refers to a diamond, whereas, in the case of other gems, the mineral name should be given.. ie.. Round brilliant-cut sapphire. This cut has at least 32 facets, plus the table on the upper part, and 24 facets on the lower part. When there are less, it is called a "Round" cut".

 

Eight cut This cut is also usually for the diamond, normally diamonds that are too small for a full cut. This cut has 8 facets on the upper and lower parts as well as the table on the upper.

 

Rose Cut and Half Dutch Rose Are facet cuts without a table or pavilion that vary in the number and positioning of facets. These are old cuts not normally used today since they do not produce much brilliance.

 

Step Cut A simple type of facet cut, specially used for colored stones, but also occasionally for diamonds. Several facets are cut parallel to the edges, the facets becoming steeper towards the girdle. The lower part usually has more facets than the upper part. A step cut can be used in combination with other cuts ie Oval-Step cut or Square-Step cut, etc.

 

Scissor Cut A type of step cut. The facets are divided into four sub-facets by the "scissors", some have truncated corners while others are cut with square corners.

 

Ceylon cut, Old Mine cut, Antique cut, or Cushion Cut This cut is mostly referred to as the "Cushion cut" and it can vary in shape from ovalish/squarish to ovalish/rectangularish. It is a primarily cut used on ruby and sapphire that is cut in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). This very popular cut has numerous facets in both upper and lower parts and is normally a very brilliant cut. This cut allows the cutter to obtain maximum weight so it is not always symmetrical.

 

Emerald Cut A step cut with an octagon shape, especially used for emerald, but also popular for longer-shaped diamonds and other colored stones. Most have truncated corners while others can have square corners.

 

Antique cuts These are examples of the Ceylon Cushion cut shapes, the first being ovalish/squarish, and the second being more ovalish/rectangularish. As stated above, It is a primarily cut used on ruby and sapphire that is cut in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). This very popular cut has numerous facets in both upper and lower parts and is normally a very brilliant cut. This cut allows the cutter to obtain maximum weight so it is not always symmetrical.,

 

Oval cut This very popular cut has numerous facets in both upper and lower parts and is normally a very brilliant cut. It's face shape is always oval. Some are cut elongated oval but this cut is always symmetrical.

 

Bead cut This is a Spherical cut that is totally faceted...

 

Other Cuts

 

Various other types of cuts show an abundance of forms available. Not all gems are cut to these forms as a general rule so these cuts are only provided as a guide to understanding them.

 

Square cut, Baguette cut (long rectangle), Octagon cut, French cut (base and table square, triangular facets)...

 

Pear cut, Navette or Marquise cut (pointed elliptical), Pendeloque or Drop cut (pear-shaped), Briolette cut (pear-shaped with crossed faceted bands)...

 

Table Cut The simplest type of step cut which is very flat with a large table. It is often used for seals or rings for men ie. onyx with a class logo, etc.

 

Cabochon cuts The main representative of the plain cut. The upper part is domed and the lower part level, or slightly domed. The name Cabochon means "French-nail" because of its rounded shape

 

Mixed cuts The upper part can be cabochon domed and the lower part faceted, or the reverse...

 

Barrel cut or Olive cut (small barrel-shaped), Trapezoid cut, Heart-shaped cut, Escutcheon-shaped cut, and many many other Fantasy cuts not pictured like Freeform, Trillion, Triangle, Princess, Radiant, Star, Modified Scissors, Spherical, Hexagon, Coats of Arms, and many others.